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In Ancient China, firing techniques allowed temperatures of about 1300-1400 degrees Celsius and even higher in some cases.

At these temperatures, the mineral components of clay melt, resulting in a thin, translucent, white vitrified type of ceramic that is known as porcelain.

This type of knowledge is usually the last step in a long sequence of experimentation, an indication that pottery production in that specific society was not new, and it probably had been developing for several thousand years.

According to the context in which the pottery was found, there are several techniques that can be applied for dating pottery.

Open firing techniques were used to produce the earliest pottery.

Firing pottery in a kiln is another method of pottery production.As a dating tool the TL technique has been of great success in authentication of ancient ceramic art objects.However, a few complicated factors limit the precision and accuracy in age determination.Enclosing the pottery inside a chamber results in key advantages: the temperatures that can be achieved are higher, last longer, and the heat can be controlled more efficiently.The simplest forms of kilns are pit kilns, which is a pit fire installation where the fuel is placed at the bottom, followed by the pottery, and more fuel in the upper layer.Non-agricultural Jomon peoples of Japan were producing clay pots used for food preparation that were elaborately decorated by about 13,000 years ago.Although there is not necessarily a causal relationship between a sedentary way of life and pottery-making, the introduction of pottery generally coincides with the adoption of an agricultural lifestyle, when durable and strong vessels and containers are needed. However, during the Early Neolithic era, around 8,000 BCE, special ovens used to parch cereal grains and to bake bread were being built in the Near East, which allowed people to control fire and produce high temperatures in enclosed facilities.Because usable clay is widely available, pottery was independently invented in many parts of the world at different times.The earliest recorded evidence of clay usage dates back to the Late Palaeolithic period in central and western Europe, where fired and unfired clay figurines were created as a form of artistic expression.These complicated factors are analyzed and discussed.Therefore, although ceramic TL dating can in general solve the problem of authentication of ancient ceramics, there are still complexities that require further research and study.Another type of kiln is an updraft kiln, which is usually a cylindrical construction divided into two compartments: the lower compartment is where the fuel is placed, while the pottery is placed in the upper compartment.This allows the heat to rise and the pottery is fired at a temperature level normally ranging from 1,000 to 1,200 degrees Celsius.The aesthetic qualities of pottery can be analysed, and it is possible to have a better understanding of what type of pigments and other substances were known to that particular society.In some cases the overall color of the pottery can be changed from its natural reddish to gray without the need of pigments, merely by manipulating the temperature and air influx in the kiln during the firing process.

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WEBMASTER NOTE: This is in no way meant to be an authoritative resource for the identity of brick brands. Another resource for identifying Hudson River bricks is a listing prepared by collector Andy Van Der Poel. Aldridge, a brick manufacturer located in Dutchess Junction. The Great Depression ended the building construction.

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