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Additional intelligence was obtained from Russian defectors and prisoners of war who crossed the Polish lines in their thousands, especially after the 1920 Battle of Warsaw.After the Polish–Soviet War and the Treaty of Riga, Polish Intelligence had to restructure to cope with new challenges.Section II developed an extensive network of agents within Poland's eastern neighbor and other adjoining countries.In the early 1920s Polish intelligence began developing a network for "offensive intelligence." The Eastern Office (Referat "Wschód") had several dozen bureaus, mostly attached to Polish consulates in Moscow, Kiev, Leningrad, Kharkov and Tbilisi.Though Poland had won most of her border conflicts (most notably the war with Russia and the Greater Poland Uprising of 1918-19 against Germany), her international situation was unenviable.By mid-1921, Section II had been restructured into three main departments, each overseeing a number of offices: Until the late 1930s the Soviet Union was seen as the most likely aggressor and Poland's main adversary.This was a Biuro Wywiadowcze (Intelligence Bureau) comprising seven departments: The fourth department, Offensive Intelligence "C", became the most developed because it carried out all the duties connected with "front-line" reconnaissance and intelligence, as well as "long-range" intelligence and surveillance in countries surrounding Bolshevik Russia, including Siberia (still in the hands of the White Russians), Turkey, Persia, China, Mongolia and Japan.

At the same time, Soviet forces carried out analogous missions on Polish soil.In 1683, during the Battle of Vienna, the Polish merchant-spy Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki secured a promise of military assistance for Vienna, besieged by the Turkish forces of Kara Mustafa Pasha, and thus facilitated the victory of a Christian European coalition led by Polish King Jan III Sobieski.Kulczycki is reported to have received as reward for his services the Turks' supplies of coffee beans and to have established Vienna's first coffee house.The situation finally stabilized in 1925; however, such missions continued to occur occasionally.Polish Intelligence produced fairly accurate pictures of the capabilities of Poland's main potential adversaries—Germany and the Soviet Union.Such agents included the 17th-century Polish poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn.Polish kings and Polish–Lithuanian military commanders (hetmans) such as Stanisław Koniecpolski maintained intelligence networks.In Western Europe (especially in Germany, France and Belgium) the Polish diaspora often formed the backbone of heavy industry; some one million people of Polish descent lived in the Ruhr Valley alone.Many of these provided intelligence on industrial production and economic conditions.Reflecting the influence of the French Military Mission to Poland, the Polish General Staff was divided into divisions entrusted with specific tasks: Division II (colloquially, "Dwójka," "Two") was formed in October 1918, even before Poland had declared her independence.Initially called the "General Staff Information Department," Division II was divided into sections (sekcje): An extensive network of domestic and foreign informants developed rapidly.The conquest of Poland took four weeks—too short a time for intelligence services to make a significant contribution.With Poland conquered, her intelligence services had to evacuate their headquarters to allied French and British territories.This was due to Poland's poor economic situation, itself the result of over a century of foreign occupation.In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Poland's economic and political situation had forced hundreds of thousands to emigrate.

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